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Style Bibliographic Citation Guide:
When doing research, you must use a standard citation format to
identify the information you have used and give credit to its creator.
Consistency is crucial.
Works are generally identified by standard elements including, but
not limited to, author's name, year or date of publication, title
or source, place of publication, and publisher. The title
should be either underlined or italicized. A period and two
spaces follow each element.
The first line of each citation starts at the left margin; the second
and any succeeding lines are indented two spaces. Each source
is listed separately and is arranged alphabetically by the author's
last name (use the title if there is no author).
NOTE: Refer to the most recent edition of the APA Publication
Manual and for the latest information on citing electronic resources
see the APA's webpage about Electronic reference formats.
American Psychological Association (2001). Publication Manual
of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.). Washington,
DC: Author .
Electronic reference formats recommended by the American Psychological
Association. (2000, August 22). Washington, DC: American
Psychological Association. Retrieved February 23, 2001, from
the APA Style Web Site: www.apastyle.org/elecref.html
Book citations must include as much of the following information
as is available: author's name, year of publication, title, city
of publication, and publisher. As some of the examples below
illustrate, other information sometimes need to be provided as well.
By a single author:
Lemann, N. (1991). The promised land: The great black
migration and how it changed America. New York: Knopf.
Two or more authors:
Venolia, J. P., Cordini, G., & Hitchcock, J. (1995).
What makes a literary masterpiece. Chicago: Hudson.
Six of more authors:
Roeder, K. et al. (1967). Nerve cells and insect
behavior. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
The Bible: A new translation (1954). (J. Moffatt, Trans.).
New York:Harper and Row.
Dorival, B. (1958). Twentieth century painters (Vols.
1-2). New York: Universe Books.
Gibbs, J. T., & Huang, L. N. (Eds.).
(1991). Children of color: Psychological interventions with
minority youth. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Kerka, S. (1996). Continuing education: Market driven
or learner centered? Myths and realities. Columbus,
OH: ERIC Clearing House on Adult, Career, and Vocational Education.
(ERIC document reproduction service No. ED 400441).
Article or chapter in an edited book:
Massaro, D. (1992). Broadening the domain of the fuzzy
logical model of perception. In H. L. Pick, Jr., P. van den
Broek, & D. C. Knill (Eds.). Cognition: Conceptual
and methodological issues (pp. 51-84). Washington, DC:
American Psychological Association.
Article in an encyclopedia:
Bergmann, P. G. (1993). Relativity.
In The new encyclopedia Britannica (Vol. 26, pp.
501-508). Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica.
An entire reference work:
Niiya, B. (Ed.). (1993). Japanese American history:
An a to z reference from 1868 to the present. New York: Facts
Berkerian, D. A. (1993). In search of the typical
eyewitness. American Psychologist, 48, 574-576.
General magazine article:
Ryback, T. W. (1991, December 30). Letter from
Salzburg. New Yorker, 62-75.
Gupta, H., Corr, O. C., Lane, P., MacDonald, S., Simon, J.,
& Nogaki, S. W. (1992, January 5). Tightening
the belt - Area's top employers won't post help- wanted signs anytime
soon. Seattle Times, pp. A1, A4, A6-A7.
Saddam's Republican Guards. (1991, February 4). Time,
Schmemann, S. (1991, December 8). The world according
to Gorbachev disappears. [Editorial]. New York Times,
National Institute of Mental Health. (1990). Clinical
training in serious mental illness. (DHHS Publication No.
ADM 90-1679). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
From Web Site :
Bush, G. (1989, April 12). Principles of ethical conduct
for government officers and employees. Exec. Order No. 12674.
Pt. 1. Retrieved February 23, 2001 from the U.S. Office of
Government Ethics: http://www.usoge.gov/exorders/eo12674.html
Seattle Central Community College Library. (2001, February).
Bibliographic citation guide: APA style. [Brochure].
Seattle, WA: Author.
Brochure from the League of Women Voters:
League of Women Voters of Seattle Education Fund. (1999).
They represent you: Citizen's directory of elected officials.
Seattle, WA: Author.
Cogswell, M. (Producer). (1992). The World of abnormal
psychology: Mood disorders. [Videotape].Burlington, VT: Annenberg/CPB.
Davis, M. (1989). Birth of the cool. Hollywood, CA:
About Electronic Formats
Citations of electronic sources, like their print counterparts,
should include author (if known), the date the document was created,
title of the work, organization sponsoring the site (if applicable),
and a retrieval statement. Retrieval statements generally
provide the date of retrieval and the URL or whatever other information
is needed to locate the document. For more information, please visit
Electronic References @ www.apastyle.org.
Citation for articles from electronic database begin with the same
information as is provided with any periodical citation. Citations
from electronic databases also require retrieval statements as outlined
[For more information: http://www.apastyle.org/elecsource.html]
Article from a databases accessible on the Web (ProQuest, SIRS,
Retrieved [month, day year] from [name of database] database.
Article from an online journal:
Retrieved [month, day year] from the World Wide Web: [URL]
Periodical Database accessed on the WWW, example 1:
Butler, K. (1996, July/August). Researching PTSD: The
biology of fear. Family Therapy Networker, 38- 45. Retrieved
December 12, 2000 from SIRS Knowledge Source database.
Periodical Database accessed on the WWW, example 2:
Sanislow, C. A., Grilo, C. M., McGlashan, T. H.
(2000, October). Factor analysis of the DSM-III-R borderline
personality disorder criteria in psychiatric inpatients. The
American Journal of Psychiatry, 157 (10), 1629-1633. Retrieved
December 13, 2000 from ProQuest database.
Internet articles based on a print source:
Jacobson, J. W., Mulick, J. A., & Schwartz, A. A. (1995).
A history of facilitated communication: Science, pseudoscience,
and antiscience: Science working group on facilitated communication
[Electronic version]. American Psychologist, 50, 750-765.
Article in an Internet-only journal:
Fredrickson, B. L. (2000, March 7). Cultivating positive emotions
to optimize health and well-being. Prevention & Treatment, 3,
Article 0001a. Retrieved November 20, 2000, from http://journals.apa.org/prevention/volume3/pre0030001a.html
[Example above quoted from: http://www.apastyle.org/elecsource.html#72]