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APA Style Bibliographic Citation Guide:

When doing research, you must use a standard citation format to identify the information you have used and give credit to its creator.  Consistency is crucial.

Works are generally identified by standard elements including, but not limited to, author's name, year or date of publication, title or source, place of publication, and publisher.  The title should be either underlined or italicized.  A period and two spaces follow each element.

The first line of each citation starts at the left margin; the second and any succeeding lines are indented two spaces.  Each source is listed separately and is arranged alphabetically by the author's last name (use the title if there is no author).

NOTE:  Refer to the most recent edition of the APA Publication Manual and for the latest information on citing electronic resources see the APA's webpage about Electronic reference formats.

American Psychological Association (2001).  Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.).  Washington, DC: Author [1].

Electronic reference formats recommended by the American Psychological Association.  (2000, August 22).  Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.  Retrieved February 23, 2001, from the APA Style Web Site: www.apastyle.org/elecref.html

Book citations must include as much of the following information as is available: author's name, year of publication, title, city of publication, and publisher.  As some of the examples below illustrate, other information sometimes need to be provided as well.

By a single author:
Lemann, N.  (1991).  The promised land: The great black migration and how it changed America.  New York: Knopf.

Two or more authors:

Venolia, J.  P., Cordini, G., & Hitchcock, J.  (1995).  What makes a literary masterpiece.  Chicago: Hudson.

Six of more authors:

Roeder, K.  et al.  (1967).  Nerve cells and insect behavior.  Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.

Unknown author:

The Bible: A new translation (1954).  (J.  Moffatt, Trans.).  New York:Harper and Row.

Multi-volume Work:

Dorival, B.  (1958).  Twentieth century painters (Vols.  1-2).  New York: Universe Books.

Edited Book:

Gibbs, J.  T., & Huang, L.  N.  (Eds.).   (1991).  Children of color: Psychological interventions with minority youth.  San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

ERIC document:

Kerka, S.  (1996).  Continuing education: Market driven or learner centered? Myths and realities.   Columbus, OH: ERIC Clearing House on Adult, Career, and Vocational Education.  (ERIC document reproduction service No. ED 400441).

Article or chapter in an edited book:

Massaro, D.  (1992).  Broadening the domain of the fuzzy logical model of perception.  In H. L. Pick, Jr., P. van den Broek, & D.  C.  Knill (Eds.).  Cognition: Conceptual and methodological issues (pp.  51-84).  Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Reference Sources
Article in an encyclopedia:

Bergmann, P.  G.  (1993).  Relativity.   In The new encyclopedia Britannica (Vol.   26, pp.  501-508).  Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica.

An entire reference work:

Niiya, B.  (Ed.).  (1993).  Japanese American history: An a to z reference from 1868 to the present.  New York: Facts on File.

Periodical Articles
Journal article:

Berkerian, D.  A.  (1993).  In search of the typical eyewitness.  American Psychologist, 48, 574-576.

General magazine article:

Ryback, T.  W.  (1991, December 30).  Letter from Salzburg.  New Yorker, 62-75.

Newspaper article:

Gupta, H., Corr, O.  C., Lane, P., MacDonald, S., Simon, J., & Nogaki, S.  W.  (1992, January 5).  Tightening the belt - Area's top employers won't post help- wanted signs anytime soon.  Seattle Times, pp.  A1, A4, A6-A7.

Anonymous article:

Saddam's Republican Guards.  (1991, February 4).  Time, p. 24.


Schmemann, S.  (1991, December 8).  The world according to Gorbachev disappears.  [Editorial].  New York Times, p.  E3.

Government Publications
Print Document:

National Institute of Mental Health.  (1990).  Clinical training in serious mental illness.  (DHHS Publication No.  ADM 90-1679).  Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

From Web Site :

Bush, G.  (1989, April 12).  Principles of ethical conduct for government officers and employees.  Exec. Order No. 12674.  Pt. 1.  Retrieved February 23, 2001 from the U.S. Office of Government Ethics: http://www.usoge.gov/exorders/eo12674.html

This Document:

Seattle Central Community College Library.  (2001, February).  Bibliographic citation guide: APA style.  [Brochure].  Seattle, WA: Author.

Brochure from the League of Women Voters:

League of Women Voters of Seattle Education Fund. (1999).  They represent you: Citizen's directory of elected officials.  Seattle, WA: Author.

Audiovisual Materials
Cogswell, M. (Producer).  (1992).  The World of abnormal psychology: Mood disorders.  [Videotape].Burlington, VT: Annenberg/CPB.

Compact disc:
Davis, M.  (1989).  Birth of the cool. Hollywood, CA: Capitol Jazz.

About Electronic Formats
Citations of electronic sources, like their print counterparts, should include author (if known), the date the document was created, title of the work, organization sponsoring the site (if applicable), and a retrieval statement.  Retrieval statements generally provide the date of retrieval and the URL or whatever other information is needed to locate the document. For more information, please visit Electronic References @ www.apastyle.org.

Online Periodicals
Citation for articles from electronic database begin with the same information as is provided with any periodical citation.  Citations from electronic databases also require retrieval statements as outlined below.
[For more information: http://www.apastyle.org/elecsource.html]

Article from a databases accessible on the Web (ProQuest, SIRS, etc.):
Retrieved [month, day year] from [name of database] database.

Article from an online journal:
Retrieved [month, day year] from the World Wide Web: [URL]

Periodical Database accessed on the WWW, example 1:

Butler, K.  (1996, July/August).  Researching PTSD: The biology of fear.  Family Therapy Networker, 38- 45.  Retrieved December 12, 2000 from SIRS Knowledge Source database.

Periodical Database accessed on the WWW, example 2:

Sanislow, C.  A., Grilo, C.  M., McGlashan, T.  H.  (2000, October).  Factor analysis of the DSM-III-R borderline personality disorder criteria in psychiatric inpatients.  The American Journal of Psychiatry, 157 (10), 1629-1633.  Retrieved December 13, 2000 from ProQuest database.

Internet articles based on a print source:

Jacobson, J. W., Mulick, J. A., & Schwartz, A. A.  (1995).  A history of facilitated communication: Science, pseudoscience, and antiscience: Science working group on facilitated communication [Electronic version]. American Psychologist, 50, 750-765.

Article in an Internet-only journal:
Fredrickson, B. L. (2000, March 7). Cultivating positive emotions to optimize health and well-being. Prevention & Treatment, 3, Article 0001a. Retrieved November 20, 2000, from http://journals.apa.org/prevention/volume3/pre0030001a.html 

[Example above quoted from: http://www.apastyle.org/elecsource.html#72]


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