Home | About us |
F.A.Q.s | Guarantee |
Contact us |
| Support |
Customer Login |
Bibliographic Citation Guide:
Modern Language Association (MLA)
Style is commonly used for academic writing in a wide range of subjects
and disciplines, particularly in the arts and humanities.
Most citations include 3 key elements: (1) author's name, (2) title
or source, and (3) publication information.
Underline or italicize titles; italics are preferred for bibliographies
published on the Web.
Follow elements with a period and two spaces.
Additional elements such as number of volumes, edition numbers,
or Web address and date of access may be required.
List each source separately; arrange alphabetically by author's
last name or title if there is no author.
Consult the MLA Handbook (cited in Anatomy, below) and/or
the MLA Home page http://www.mla.org for more examples and
Anatomy of an MLA Citation
Below is a citation for a book with a single author. Consult the
title page and the back of the title page for citation information.
Other types of materials require different elements, such as article
title and issue date for periodicals; and URL and date of access
for anything accessed on the Web. Follow the examples in this guide
to format citations according to the type of information you are
By a single author
Moran, Theodore H. Beyond Sweatshops: Foreign Direct Investment
and Globalization in Developing Countries. Washington, D.C.: Brookings,
Christianse, John B., and Irene W. Leigh. Cochlear Implants in Children:
Ethics and Choices. Washington, D.C.: Gallaudet UP, 2002.
Venolia, Jean P., Georgio Cordini, and Joseph Hitchcock. What Makes
a Literary Masterpiece. Chicago: Hudson, 1995.
More than three authors
Bailyn, Bernard, et al. The Great Republic. Lexington, MA: D. C.
The Bible, a New Translation. Trans. James Moffatt. New York: Harper
and Row, 1954.
Dorival, Bernard. Twentieth Century Painters. 2 vols. New York:
Universe Books, 1958.
Collection produced by an editor
Guernsey, Otis L., Jr., and Jeffrey Sweet, eds. The Burns Mantle
Theater Yearbook of 1989-90. New York: Applause, 1990.
Essay or Chapter within a collection
Sweeney, John J., "The New Internationalism." Broad, Robin,
ed. Global Backlash: Citizen Initiatives in a Just World Economy.
Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2002.
Ebook (electronic book)
Thornton, Chris. Truth from Trash: How Learning Makes Sense. Cambridge,
MA: MIT P, 2000. NetLibrary. Seattle Central Community College Lib.
24 Feb. 2003 http://emedia.netlibrary.com
A simplified citation is commonly used for general encyclopedias.
Include publication information for subject encyclopedias. Include
volume or page number(s) only if the articles are not in alphabetical
General encyclopedia article
Trainen, Martha. "New York State." Encyclopedia Americana.
Subject encyclopedia article
Hammond, William H. "Media and the War." Encyclopedia
of the Vietnam War. New York: Macmillan Library Reference, 1996.
Article in a multi-volume work not in alphabetical order
Tusse, Johannes. "Education in Ethiopia." Encyclopedia
of East Africa. Vol. 2. Nairobi: Kenya Press 1992. 565-72. 3 vols.
An entire reference work
Niiya, Brian, ed. Japanese American History: An A to Z Reference
from 1868 to the Present. New York: Facts On File, 1993.
Online reference database
"African Art." World History: the Modern Era. ABC-CLIO
Schools Subscriptions Web Sites. Seattle Central Community College
Lib. 24 Feb. 2003 http://www.worldhistory.abc-clio.com
Online reference database
"Language." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2003. Encyclopædia
Britannica Online. Seattle Central Community College Lib. 24 Feb.
Include author's name (when shown), title of article, periodical
name, and page numbers.
Journal citations should include the volume and issue number, and
the publication year.
For magazine and newspapers, omit the volume and issue number and
include the complete date.
For full text articles from electronic databases, add the database
title and publisher, library through which you gained access, date
of access, and URL (Complete list of database URLs for SCCC Library).
Wernerfelt, Birgner. "Advertising Content When Brand Choice
Is a Signal." Journal of Business 63.1 (1990): 91-98.
Articles in weekly publications
Ryback, Timothy W. "Letter from Salzburg." New Yorker
30 Dec. 1991: 62-75.
Articles in monthly publications
Alford, Jeffrey. "Ap Nam? Kin Khao? Feeling at Home in Thai
Kitchens." Eating Well Jan. - Feb. 1992: 44-55.
Miller, David. "Tightening the Belt." Seattle Times 5
Jan. 1992: A1.
"Saddam's Republican Guards." Time 4 Feb. 1991: 24.
Schmemann, Serge. "The World According to Gorbachev Disappears."
Editorial. New York Times 8 Dec. 1991: E3.
Periodical Database accessed on the WWW
Keegan, John, and Tom Wolfe. "Who Should be Person of the Century?"
Time 30 Aug. 1999: 15+. ProQuest Direct. ProQuest Information and
Learning Company. Seattle Central Community College Lib., 25 Sept.
1999 http://proquest.umi.com/pdqauto .
Periodical Database accessed on the WWW
Paul, Annie Murphy. "Where Bias Begins: The Truth About Stereotypes."
Psychology Today May - June 1998: 52+. SIRS Researcher. SIRS Knowledge
Source. Seattle Central Community College Lib., 8 Nov. 2002 http://sks.sirs.com
WORLD WIDE WEB SITES & SOURCES
First determine the type of source:
For sources that exist only on the Web, follow the examples below.
For sources also published in other formats, such as books, reference
materials, periodicals, and broadcast media, see appropriate sections
of this document. See REFERENCE SOURCES for citing online encyclopedias
and PERIODICAL ARTICLES for citing full text articles from online
databases, such as ProQuest or SIRS.
Include: Author (if known), title of the piece (if applicable),
title of the complete work (italicized or underlined), date of electronic
publication or the latest update, organization sponsoring the site
(if applicable), date you accessed the document, and complete URL
(break long URLs only after a slash [/]).
World Wide Web Site
English. 23 Oct. 2000. Dept. of English, Howard U. 3 March 2003
Online Posting to an email discussion list
Hake, Richard. "Why Physics First." Online posting. 15
Oct. 2002. Mathedcc. 21 Jan. 2003 http://mathforum.org/epigone/math-teach/
Personal Web Page
Hull, Joe. Geology, Environmental Science, Earth Science. 2002 3
March 2003 http://seattlecentral.org/faculty/jhull/ .
Flannagan, Roy. "Reflections on Milton and Ariosto." Early
Modern Literary Studies 2.3 (1996): 16 pars. 22 Feb. 2001 http://unixg.ubc.ca:7001/0/e-sources/emls/02-3/flanmilt.html
United States. Library of Congress. Copyright Office. Copyright
Basics Sept. 2000. 3 March 2003 http://www.copyright.gov/circs/circ1.html
If no individual author is shown, give the governmental body (e.g.,
Washington State, City of Seattle), followed by the agency name,
and the usual publication information (title, place, publisher and
date). For most federal publications, the publisher will be the
Government Printing Office, which can be abbreviated 'GPO.'
Issued by a state agency
Washington State. Washington State University, Pullman Cooperative
Extension. Raising Rabbits, Helpful Suggestions for Beginners. Extension
Bulletin 0975. Pullman: WSU, 1991.
United States. Commerce Dept. An Act to Provide the Small Business
Administration Continuing Authority to Administer a Program for
Small Innovative Firms, and for Other Purposes. Washington: GPO,
Treat a pamphlet as you would a book
Outsmarting Crime: A Guide to Safer Living. n.p.: Washington State
Criminal Justice Training Commission, 1990.
In general, citations for AV materials must include author (if available),
title, producing company and date. Other elements vary depending
on the type of material, so refer to the MLA Handbook. For
music, if you are using a format other than compact disc (CD), indicate
as shown in the examples below.
Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Dir. Denise Guyen. Videocassette. SVE
Television or Radio Program
"Cuba and Cocaine." Narr. Bill Moyers. Frontline.Documentary
Consortium. PBS. WTVS, Miami. 18 Jan. 1990.
Music (song from a compact disc)
Coltrane, John. "Giant Steps." The Last Giant: The John
Coltrane Anthology. Rhino, 1993.
Music Recordings (no composer shown)
Lewiston, David. Fiestas of Peru: Music of the High Andes. LP. Nonesuch
Composer and performer different
Guthrie, Woody. Pete Seeger Sings Woody Guthrie. Perf. Pete Seeger.
Audiocassette. Folkways, 1968.
Interview (heard or read online)
Jamieson, Kathleen Hall. Interview with Renee Montagne. "Political
Apologies." Morning Edition. Natl. Public Radio. 20 Dec. 2002.
3 March 2003 http://discover.npr.org/features/feature.jhtml?wfId=885601
Gore, Al, and Tipper Gore. Interview with Terry Gross. Fresh Air.
National Public Radio. KUOW, Seattle. 19 Nov. 2002.
Mitchell, Charles. Personal Interview. 7 March 2003.
FORMATTING CITATIONS in MICROSOFT WORD
To format hanging indentation
Go to the Format menu and click Paragraph. Choose the Indents and
In the Special list under Indentation, select Hanging.
In the By box, set the amount of space for the hanging indent. Use
preview to see the results of your adjustments before making your
To turn off automatic underlining for Web addresses
Go to the Format menu and click AutoFormat.
Under the AutoFormat tab, if the Internet and network paths with
hyperlinks box is checked, click to remove the check mark.
Click the AutoFormat as you type tab, and remove the check mark
from Internet and network paths with hyperlinks box.
Click OK in the AutoCorrect window; click OK in the AutoFormat window.